The Infamous Dress


At the expense of becoming another sheep in the herd of humanity’s trends, today’s article is going to be about the dress that has invaded the Internet. For those of you who don’t know, ‘the dress’ is a picture of a dress taken at a wedding and published on Tumblr, where it proceeded to reach international fame due to an odd fact: different people see the dress being different colours. It may sound like a weird online hoax, but it’s just an optical illusion that causes some people to see the dress and white and gold, whereas others see it as blue and black. Recently, there have been many theories suggested to explain why this phenomenon happens (for example, because of bad eyesight), but it actually has nothing to do with our eyes, but rather, with our brains. If you’re curious, the actual dress is blue and black, but that doesn’t mean that those who see it in other colours have worse eyesight or worse brains, as you will see.

Think about it like this. When you see an object in the shade, you automatically assume it is of a lighter colour than it actually looks like because you know shade makes things look darker. Therefore, your brain unconsciously tries to compensate for by processing the image your eyes are supplying and making it lighter.

But shade is not the only way images can be distorted. It also happens at normal daylight. If you are observing a piece of paper right underneath the sun, you will be viewing it thanks to a yellowish light. Your brain is smart enough to detect the light has a slight colour of its own and will therefore modify the image and subtract some yellow from it. If, on the other hand, you are seeing the piece of paper with the sun blocked but still receiving light from the sky, the light will be slightly blue, so your brain will take that bluish undertone away.

With this image, it’s the exact same scenario. The dress can appear to be in the shade to some people, and exposed to sunlight to others. Depending on how you unconsciously interpret it, you will see the dress a specific way. Those who think the dress is in the shade will unconsciously think it is darker than it should be, so their brains modify the image and make it lighter. This results in light colours like white and yellow-gold to appear. Those who don’t see the dress in partial darkness keep the colours mostly the same and don’t process the image, making it blue and black.

Interestingly enough, some people see it one way sometimes, the other way other times, and even a mixture of the two! This is just caused by our brains varying the amount of modification they do to the image, and may also have to do with the quality of the screen the picture is being viewed through.

But despite all of this, if you ask me, the dress is obviously white and gold.

dressgate

What colour do you see this dress?

 

FrankenBattery


We live in a world where energy is currency. Wars are fought over petrol and other fossil fuels, whilst millions of people work tirelessly to provide alternatives like solar energy to prevent global warming and provide a greener and safer future for our planet.

Since energy is so important, a lot of research is put into it, yielding fascinating results. The most recent one has to do with lithium-sulfur batteries. Their mechanism is not new; in fact, it has been known for decades. But there have always been practical imperfections with their functioning. Scientists seem to have discovered a way to solve them and create one of the most useful batteries to date.

lithium sulfur battery

Lithium-sulfur cells coould soon power your phone, your computer, your car, etc…

Normally, this battery consists of two electrodes, one made of lithium and the other of a carbon-sulfur compound. When the battery works, ions from one electrode move to the other through the electrolyte, creating a current. Unfortunately, lithium can react with the sulfur and form lithium sulphides, which dissolve into the electrolyte and slowly use up the sulfur electrode. Up until now, the solution had been to add some other chemicals, like titanium oxide or manganese dioxide, which would stabilise the sulfur and prevent it from dissolving so easily in the electrolyte. But the method which seems the most promising is actually the most unexpected: adding DNA.

Yes, you read that right. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, the organic molecule that codes for all of our characteristics actually improves lithium-sulfur batteries. DNA is made of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, and luckily for material scientists, all these elements easily bond with sulfur. This makes DNA ideal for trapping sulfides, preventing them from dissolving in the electrolyte. In turn, it improves the efficiency of these batteries by almost 3 times. Even better: DNA is cheap and biodegradable, and a very small amount is needed for it to improve the battery’s performance.

The interest in this specific type of batteries is not unjustified. They have a high energy density (can deliver up to 3 times as much energy as lithium ion cells), are cheaper to produce and greener for the environment. It is therefore not strange that scientists are trying to do as much work as possible to help improve this technology. However, the battery world is a slow one, and although an idea may look good in the lab, it is harder to extrapolate that into the industry. But keep your hopes up! Lithium-sulfur batteries could very well substitute the widely used lithium ion cells in only 15 years, with original ideas like the one exposed on this article to push it through.

Magnifying Eyes


It is a popular depiction of the futuristic world to show contact lenses that can display smartphone information: text messages, emails, phone calls… Don’t get too excited, this isn’t today’s news exactly. What has actually been created is a set of contact lenses that allow the user to zoom in and out of everyday life.

The gadget is basically a slightly larger contact lens that covers both your retina and the whites of the eye. It is also thicker and much more rigid than normal contacts, but can still be worn comfortably. In addition, it is covered with strips of aluminium mirror forming a circle, which cause light to be reflected many times within the lens, creating a magnification of 2.8 times. For the apparatus to work at its finest, it has to be joined to a pair of electronic glasses. When the subject winks with one eye, it activates the glasses, so they switch from normal mode to polarised mode. Then, they filter light so only light of one wavelength passes through (polarises) and focuses it on the telescopic area of the lens, which gives a zoomed in view. By winking with the other eye, the glass switches back to normal mode so there is no zoom.

At the moment, there have been no human trials due to the risk of harming the eye. The lenses are naturally thick, so it is difficult for air to pass through and keep the surface of the eye fresh and oxygenated. The newest model of this contact includes many little pores that allow air to pass, so the lenses can be worn for a longer period of time with a much lower risk.

contact lens zoom

These lenses were originally planned as a substitute for binoculars for soldiers

Designing these lenses was not only for entertainment or a cool technological device, but rather for medical purposes. These zooming contact lenses can help people with limited visibility, like those with macular degeneration, a disease which affects muscles in the retina. They offer a much easier and practical alternative than surgery or special, expensive glasses.

Mom, Dad and the Mitochondrial Donor


They say three is a party. But in this case, three parents may be just enough parents to save future babies from suffering a crippling disease for the rest of their lives.

We are talking about the mitochondrial replacement procedure. Found in the cytoplasm of a cell, mitochondria are powerhouses which supply it with energy to function and survive. However, they are not perfect organelles, and may sometimes have mutations which cause disease. Unfortunately, this can be passed on to children, since when fertilisation occurs, it uses the mother’s egg cell as the starter cell, and so all of her mitochondria, meaning that any subsequent cells that form from that zygote will carry the mother’s defective mitochondria.

zygote

A human zygote, which would contain a nucleus with genes from the mother and the father, and mitochondria from a donor

To prevent this, scientists have designed a new process, called mitochondrial replacement, to be carried out on women with mitochondrial diseases, allowing them to have children and prevent these from also suffering from the disease. It is done by a form of In Vitro Fertilisation. An egg cell from the mother and a sperm cell from the father are taken, like in normal IVF. The change comes when we add another egg cell, this time from a different woman (a donor). The nucleus of the mother’s egg cell is taken and it replaces the nucleus from the donor egg cell. The sperm is then allowed to fertilise the new egg cell and a zygote is formed which can then be implanted onto the mother and allowed to grow into a healthy baby. This way, the zygote will develop from a cell which contains the mother’s genes, but none of her mitochondria, so the baby is safe.

Messing around with zygotes is never child’s play, and always carries some controversy. In this case, it is due to the questionable effects of adding a third group of genes to a person. Since mitochondria are essential for life, having them come from a different source than the rest of the genome could have unpredictable consequences.

Despite some uncertainty, the UK government has approved this measure, saying there is no real proof it is unsafe. Rest assured, there will be plenty of human trials before it becomes a standard procedure, but at least it’s a brave step towards helping people suffering from these diseases improve their lives.

Fossils on the Moon


the moon

The answer to the origin of life on Earth may actually not be on Earth

Although the Universe is 13.8 billion years old, life took a lot longer to develop. Estimates say that life ‘happened’ up to 17 million years ago somewhere in the Universe, but only spread through the Earth 3 million years ago. There are various theories as to how life developed on Earth specifically. Some think that the random collisions of molecules that give rise to life happened independently on Earth, since it had favourable conditions. Others think that this may have occurred someplace else, deep in the vastness of space, and that those small living creatures were transported to Earth via a meteorite.

At the moment, there is no way to confirm which of these theories is correct. It was thought that analysing fossil records could show whether any meteorite that arrived at the time life started actually contained living organisms. But Earth is an active planet, and its continuous geological activity has pretty much erased all evidence of it. But scientists have thought of an alternative.

If 17 million years ago there were meteorites containing life roaming around the universe colliding with planets like the Earth, they could have hit the Moon, since they are so close together. And the great thing about this possibility is that it is actually verifiable. The Moon has a much calmer tectonic history, since it currently does not contain any lava in its center to wreck fossil records. But at the time life is thought to have spread on Earth, the Moon was covered in lava, which is more helpful than you imagine. Several experiments in the past have shown that complex organic molecules that made up early life are able to withstand the high temperatures in the lava, and may have actually been protected from radiation by being buried deep inside the hot liquid.

So now we only need to go on a mining expedition to the Moon to find any fossils that may give us the next clue as to when and how life started in this wonderful Solar System of ours.

Micro Slavery


bacteria culture

This is the only way these modified organisms can live: in a dish in the lab

Bacteria can be both useful and lethal. In either case, scientists want total control over them to maximise their efficiency or prevent any diseases. However, it does sounds impossible: how can humans control a bacterium, which is a free living organism so small we can’t see it with our naked eye and is incapable of understanding our commands? But of course they have accomplished this, or otherwise I wouldn’t be writing an article on it.

Subjugating bacteria is done by a simple method. All living organisms require proteins made out of amino acids to live, and bacteria are no different. They use them to carry out many varied functions: they act as enzymes, hormones, connective tissue… so if you control how bacteria make proteins, you can basically dictate how they live their lives. Since proteins are coded by the DNA, scientists tweaked the genetic information so that bacteria didn’t code for proteins they way they would usually do. But changing the whole genome is a long, tiresome process; so instead, they targeted a specific set of genes which code for a specific set of proteins: those that are crucial for a bacterium to make other proteins. It is quite effective. If bacteria can’t make the proteins that guide DNA transcription and translation (the processes that produce proteins), then the bacteria are hindered and can’t work any further.

The modifications involved changing the bases in the DNA sequence so they didn’t code for the usual, natural amino acids. Instead, some new bases introduced coded for an artificial amino acid, created and only found in the lab, so proteins could only be made if this one artificial amino acid was present. This idea, although creative, was developed by two independent teams, one of which used a large, artificial amino acid and the other used three different artificial amino acids. Either way, if these bacteria wanted to survive, they would have to stay in the lab, the only place where they can obtain the amino acid necessary for creating proteins.

The main implications of this development are related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). People fear that creating beings with features enhanced in the laboratory is dangerous, and if they somehow make it into the wild and grow there, they can harm other, more natural species, or reproduce with them, which would destroy the natural balance of natural selection. This technique solves both of those problems, since the new GMOs developed with dependency on this amino acid would only be able to live in the lab, and could be easily controlled and kept in small numbers.

Light Sprints


light pulse

Small light pulses can now be modified so they slow down

Remember any physics lessons during your high school years? How it was always said the speed of a light was the most unchangeable constant of all? Well… keep reading. In a perfect example of how science changes to perfect itself, scientists at the University of Glasgow have carried out a very interesting set of experiments which ultimately showed that the speed of light can in fact change.

Now, we all know that when light enters a medium, such as water or glass, it slows down. Whereas the speed in a vacuum is said to be 299 792 458 m/s, it can go down to 225 056 264 m/s in water and even 124 018 189 m/s in diamond. This is due to the increased density through which the light has to pass through, so the light particles suffer more collisions which slow it down. But the news come from the idea that speed can also change in a vacuum, even if there is no change in medium and therefore in density.

However, there is a trick. This change in speed won’t happen spontaneously, it has to be slightly triggered. Although it is usually simplified as ‘straight’ or plane waves, where every point travels parallel to each other, light is a bit more complex than that. Two points in a ray of light can actually converge and join, bending their shape. When this effect happens, light speed is affected.

The experiment consisted of a source emitting only two photons. One of them was directed to flow through an optical fibre, so its journey was not interrupted and was as smooth as possible. The other one was passed through a series of apparatus which changed its structure for a short period of time and then restored it back to normal. The time it took each of the photons to arrive to the finish line was measured very precisely. No matter how many repeats the team conducted, the modified photons were always slightly slower and arrived after the untouched one.

The change is speed is not immense, and will have no effect on day-to-day calculations, but it could be have some importance on experiments which use short pulses of light. The fact this effect exists is already worth noting, as it is theoretically obvious but no one had proved it before.

Antibiotic Hero


Antibiotics are the real wonder drug. They were a revolution in the 20th century, capable of fighting the most powerful bacterial infections. Scientists understood their potential and worked tirelessly to create a wide variety of them to harness their power, but eventually they stopped. Since the 1980s, no new antibiotic has been discovered. Since we have a great amount of them, it wouldn’t be too big of an issue, if it weren’t for a growing problem: resistance.

Due to the threat antibiotics represent to bacteria, these organisms feel a high selection pressure to evolve and develop new ways to defend themselves from these drugs. And they have succeeded. Many strains of bacteria, especially for diseases like MRSA and TB, have become immune to many antibiotics and are proving really hard to fight. Due to the increase in antibiotic resistance, there has been a hunt for new antibiotics in the recent years, and it has finally paid off.

The most common way to obtain an antibiotic is from bacteria themselves. We are not the only ones who want to get rid of them; competing bacteria do too. So when these bacteria develop chemicals to destroy other bacteria, we need to extract them and use them to our advantage. But to extract the chemicals, bacteria need to be cultured in the lab, which can be difficult at time, since the most used bacteria for this process are found in the soil, which has conditions difficult to recreate in the lab. A new method created by researchers in Boston could solve this: it consists of creating a culture with three layers: two layers of soil on either side of a semi permeable membrane. These are perfect conditions for bacteria and have made it possible for thousands of them to grow and for a possible new antibiotic to be isolated.

teixobactin

Teixobactin could fight TB and other diseases which, over the years, have become immune to our medications

 It’s called teixobactin, and it targets proteins on the membrane of bacteria, eventually killing them. Because of its complicated mechanism, it is very hard for bacteria to develop resistance to its action. However, it is not impossible. Scientists predict that if used correctly (that is, without overprescribing), teixobactin could be effective for over 30 years, quite a long lifespan for an antibiotic. As it is completely new and bacteria have never been exposed to it, many say it could be the key to fight multidrug resistant bacteria, fighting superbugs and giving us and edge over the most fierce and dangerous infections. These hopeful results have yet to be confirmed in human trials, but the effectiveness of the new antibiotic seems to be as good as it sounds in animal tests.

 With this new method and this new antibiotic, the future of medicine could prosper, and bacterial infection could remain an enemy we can defeat.

2014 Science Highlights: Part 2


Continuing last week’s list of the most interesting scientific events of 2014, here I present 5 more discoveries that marked this year.

6. Curious Curiosity

moon earth curiosity

The picture Curiosity took in which the Moon and Earth can be seen together

2014 was Curiosity’s year. It was always present in the news, whether it was because of its 2 Earth years anniversary, its 1 Martian year anniversary, the popular selfie it took of itself or the breathtaking picture of the Moon and the Earth. But Curiosity is not only a great photographer; it’s a great researcher too. Since its arrival on Mars, it has provided us with a lot of information about the Red planet. It has made some curious discoveries on the methane gas concentrations in Mars’ atmosphere, and the deuterium to hydrogen ratio, to shed some light on the controversial history of water in Mars.

 7. ALS Fever

als icebucketchallenge

ALS got lots of attention from the insanely popular Ice Bucket Challenge

The Ice Bucket Challenge swept the world; almost everyone, from celebrities to normal citizens did it, and most donated some amount of money to the ALS Association. Overall, $115 million dollars were raised, and the money will now go into helping people with this condition and into research for a treatment and a cure. Although ALS is not a very common disease, it is a crippling one and can leave those affected with a very disabled life. Therefore, it is absolutely amazing to see the amount of support this charity received, and very hopeful how much effort was put into spreading awareness.

 8. The $1000 Genome

genome 1000

By making reading genomes cheaper, we are getting closer to personalized medicine

A machine that could effectively read a person’s whole genome for less than 1000 dollars was invented this year. This has been a very sought after discovery, and a milestone in the genetic field. Scientists have expected this for years, and it is such an important creation that even prizes were created for those who could accomplish this feat to motivate scientists into researching it. Now that we finally have it, it’s better than we imagined. The machine can actually sequence 5 sets of genomes per day. This could set off a revolution in genomics, and fasten the pace of discovery tremendously.

 9. Giant Dinosaur

giant dinosaur

A drawing of the largest creature ever; its size is roughly that of a seven-story biulding

Dinosaurs have always been known for their size, ferocity and majesty. A new species of dinosaur discovered in Patagonia has been calculated to measure 40m long and 20m high, with an estimated weight of 77 tonnes; that’s 77000 kg! Not only is this the largest dinosaur ever found, but it is also the largest animal to ever walk the Earth. What’s also great bout this discovery is that there were dozens of bones from this creature and allconserved in a great condition, so investigating these bones won’t be too difficult. Unfortunately, it still doesn’t have a name; it is such an important aspect that archeologists want time to think of a name that can represent the importance of this animal.

 10. Fake Life Flourishes

X and Y

Base X (left) and base Y (right), completely new bases which act like the natural ones

Synthetic biology grew greatly this year. On one hand, scientists were able to create a synthetic version of yeast’s chromosome, by substituting the original, natural genes by artificial ones created in the lab. But also, two new bases were proven effective this year. All animals use the usual 4 bases (A, G, C, T) in their genes to code for proteins. But new research has created a bacterium that uses two extra bases, named X and Y, which can code for new amino acids and extend the range of chemicals organisms can produce.

 

2014 was a great year for science; let’s hope 2015 has even more interesting and fascinating discoveries in store for us!

2014 Science Highlights: Part 1


Another year passes, so it’s time for another round up of the most interesting scientific events that have happened in the last 12 months. 2014 has been a year full of fascinating discoveries, both in this planet and outside of it, but with some disappointing realisations too.

 1. The Ebola Crisis Continues

ebola

The Ebola virus keeps taking lives and will continue to do so until we find a treatment

The Ebola virus gained a lot of attention this autumn when it grew to an unprecedented size: it became the larges Ebola outbreak in history. In fact, the WHO declared it a global public health emergency and many countries and organisations rushed to contribute some help. At first contained in West Africa, there were a couple of isolated cases in Europe and the USA which caused even more panic, but it has died down. As with many catastrophes, after the initial spotlight, the Ebola pandemic has lost a lot of attention from the public, even though it has not stopped growing. However, it is slightly more controlled, and due to all the press it received, plenty of research is going into treating it, which should hopefully yield some treatments or a vaccine.

2. Stem Cells Stump

Mouse embryo with beating heart

The original STAP cells, which held so much potential, but turned out to be too good to be true

There was a great flurry of excitement at the beginning of this year when researchers in Japan claimed to have created stem cells by simply dipping blood cells into acid. The STAP (Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency) cells were great for medical research since they got rid of the ethical issues of using embryonic stem cells. The potential of this easy and cheap method were immense, so as soon as the results were published, many scientists from around the world tried to carry out the experiment themselves. But they couldn’t. The results couldn’t be replicated. A more in depth investigation showed that the results of the original experiment were not accurate, and now the theory has, unfortunately, been disproved.

3. Rosetta and Philae

rosetta philae

A representation showing Rosetta (left) and Philae (right) on the surface of 67P

You can’t summarise 2014 without mentioning either the Rosetta spacecraft or the Philae lander. They have both accomplished feats in science which could have only been dreamed of. Rosetta has been in space for 10 years in pursuit of the 67PN comet which is travelling through our Solar System. This year it finally reached it and is now moving relative to it, becoming the first object to rendezvous with a comet. But Rosetta is not the only one who’s kept busy. After rendezvousing with the comet, Rosetta released Philae, a small robot whose objective was to land on 67P. And so it did, although it was a bumpy ride. Unfortunately, it ran out of battery soon after the landing, making it impossible for it to analyse the comet and take samples; its original purpose. But 67P is supposed to pass close to the Sun at some point, which might reactivate Philae and help it complete its mission

4. Dusty Waves

primordial waves

The graph showing what scientists thought were primordial waves, the proof of inflation theory, but is actualy dust

There was another fascinating discovery this year, in which a special type of wave was detected coming from space, with massive implications. Called primordial waves, they are theorised to have been produced during the Big Bang, and if their existence was confirmed, the theory of inflation, which states that the universes started expanding just after it was created would be proved. What were supposed to be these waves were then detected, and scientists were ecstatic. The Big Bang is one of the most confusing aspects of science, and this discovery could help clarify it greatly. But again, after further investigation, the results did not look too good. The alleged ‘primordial waves’ were most likely just dust in the Universe, interfering with the results and creating false hopes.

5. Young Calls Young

blood

Blood could hold secrets for eternal youth

In a truly zombie-like procedure, scientists sewed young and old rats together so they created blood vessels between each other and shared blood. After some time, they investigated how tissues had grown and developed in the two rats and the results were utterly fascinating. The old rats had created more neural connections in their brains, their muscles had healed faster, and their heart muscles had been rejuvenated. However, the young mice suffered the opposite effects.

But scientists concentrated on the positive side, on what chemicals in the young rats caused these changes in the old ones and detected a specific protein, GDF11, which seemed to activate stem cells and cause all these beneficial effects. They also discovered chemicals in older mice which did the opposite: they made stem cells react slower, which in turn deteriorated the health of the younger rats. The next step is finding the equivalent proteins in humans, so that older people can be healed from diseases such as Alzheimer’s or arthritis.

 

Stay tuned for the more of the most interesting scientific events of 2014 in the epic conclusion: 2014 Science Highlights: Part 2.