Antibiotics are the real wonder drug. They were a revolution in the 20th century, capable of fighting the most powerful bacterial infections. Scientists understood their potential and worked tirelessly to create a wide variety of them to harness their power, but eventually they stopped. Since the 1980s, no new antibiotic has been discovered. Since we have a great amount of them, it wouldn’t be too big of an issue, if it weren’t for a growing problem: resistance.
Due to the threat antibiotics represent to bacteria, these organisms feel a high selection pressure to evolve and develop new ways to defend themselves from these drugs. And they have succeeded. Many strains of bacteria, especially for diseases like MRSA and TB, have become immune to many antibiotics and are proving really hard to fight. Due to the increase in antibiotic resistance, there has been a hunt for new antibiotics in the recent years, and it has finally paid off.
The most common way to obtain an antibiotic is from bacteria themselves. We are not the only ones who want to get rid of them; competing bacteria do too. So when these bacteria develop chemicals to destroy other bacteria, we need to extract them and use them to our advantage. But to extract the chemicals, bacteria need to be cultured in the lab, which can be difficult at time, since the most used bacteria for this process are found in the soil, which has conditions difficult to recreate in the lab. A new method created by researchers in Boston could solve this: it consists of creating a culture with three layers: two layers of soil on either side of a semi permeable membrane. These are perfect conditions for bacteria and have made it possible for thousands of them to grow and for a possible new antibiotic to be isolated.
It’s called teixobactin, and it targets proteins on the membrane of bacteria, eventually killing them. Because of its complicated mechanism, it is very hard for bacteria to develop resistance to its action. However, it is not impossible. Scientists predict that if used correctly (that is, without overprescribing), teixobactin could be effective for over 30 years, quite a long lifespan for an antibiotic. As it is completely new and bacteria have never been exposed to it, many say it could be the key to fight multidrug resistant bacteria, fighting superbugs and giving us and edge over the most fierce and dangerous infections. These hopeful results have yet to be confirmed in human trials, but the effectiveness of the new antibiotic seems to be as good as it sounds in animal tests.
With this new method and this new antibiotic, the future of medicine could prosper, and bacterial infection could remain an enemy we can defeat.