Tree of 40 Fruits


I’m sure we’ve all seen a tree or two at some point in our lives, sometimes carrying fruit, but never a single tree with branches full of 40 different varieties of fruit.

This truly innovating project was actually led not by a scientist, but by an artist. His name is Sam Van Aken, and he is an art professor at Syracuse University in New York who some years ago planned to create a tree where each branch produced a different fruit, so that in spring, every branch would bloom into a different colour, but all in shades of pink, white and red.

tree 40 fruit

A CGI image of what the tree will look like in spring

To accomplish this gardening feat, he used a technique called chip grafting. It consists of cutting a fragment of a flowering tree that gives one type fruit (including the bud), and adding that onto a previously-made cut on the ‘master tree’ (the original tree that will hold all the different fruits). Then, it is held together with tape and left during the winter so the two parts join.

And so step by step, the tree became larger, and every year it had the ability to produce more and more fruits until, after 9 years, it could make up to 40 types. This project has been carried out for quite some time, so now, in total, there are 16 of these hybrid trees, each with a different combination of fruits. However, they all produce variations of stone fruits, like apricots, cherries, plums and peaches because they are easily compatible. To find these trees, you should look all over the US, in museums and community centres, or if you’ve got enough money to spend on this, you can even buy your own for around $30,000.

The idea originally was just to create beautiful trees as a work of art, but as Van Aken was collecting different varieties of fruits to add to his trees, he discovered a growing problem: a lower variety of species had become available, and only a few were being grown at an industrial scale. The less-common varieties were not being used because they were not as good for selling: the colour may not be as appealing, the size may be too small or too large, or the may last very little time on the shelf. This meant that some of the native, antique species were being lost, which worried the artist and made him change the focus of the project onto conservation. So now, not only do his trees carry some of these rarer species so they are still around, but he’s also spending the money he earns from the ‘Trees of 40 Fruits’ into creating an orchard collecting all the different varieties of stone fruit, especially the uncommon ones, so they are still go and people can even go and have a taste!

Super Brain Network


Although it may seem directly taken from a science fiction movie, scientists at Duke University have actually managed to connect the brains of several organisms so that without any real communication they have been able to work together to carry out tasks.

In a series of experiments, researchers opened the skull of both monkeys and rats and using electrodes and wires, linked members of the same species together so that, even if they could not share complex thoughts or emotions, they could synchronise their neural activity.

When doing some experiments on rats, the connection was investigated by having one of the animals undergo an electrical stimulus, so its brain activity increased. The other rats, despite not being stimulated directly, automatically changed their neural activity to match that of the first rat, so it looked like they too had received the stimulus, and felt its effects.

But not only does this connection make them more ‘empathic’, it also makes them more intelligent. When scientists sent temperature and atmospheric pressure information into their brains, coded by electrical impulses, the rats could put all the information they had received together and solve problems regarding the chance of rainfall. They could do this by themselves, without any linking, but the brain network helped them obtain better scores.

computer

Linking brains is no longer a science fiction movie plot

With monkeys, three of them were connected through the motor region of their brains, after being trained individually to control a virtual arm with thoughts alone. Once they were connected, each was able to control only certain aspects of the arm’s movement, like only being able to move the arm horizontally and vertically, and even those abilities it had to share with another monkey, so that each had an equal contribution to the movement in that direction. However, as messy as this sounds, they synchronised and managed to work with each together, combining their skills to control the arm and grab an imaginary ball displayed on the computer.

The applications for this are not to make a huge human population brain network, where we can share our thoughts and emotions, as not only are they too complex for it to be possible to share them this way, but it would also be unethical and have privacy issues. However, it can be used in people who have had some damage to their brain. For example, someone who has suffered from a stroke and can no longer talk normally can be connected to a healthy person, so said area synchronises with the healthy area and accelerates the healing process.

Cystic Hallelujah


Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited genetic condition, where specialised cells called epithelial cells, found in the lining of vessels (like the lungs, the intestines, the reproductive ducts…) do not function correctly. Normally, they would produce mucus, a slimy substance that reduces friction and allows substances to pass through the tracts more easily, but when suffering from Cystic Fibrosis, the mucus becomes less runny, so it is not as efficient at lubricating.

The most common treatment is physiotherapy, where an expert massages the chest area to help move the mucus along. This is an important area to do so, since if the mucus in the lungs gets stuck, it could house bacterial infections and cause trouble breathing. But as much as this may help, it still doesn’t cure CF, so infected people may still die quite young (around 40 years old).

A possible solution which has been considered for over a quarter of a century, since the single gene responsible for causing CF had been identified, has been gene therapy. This technique consists of introducing a healthy version of the gene into the cells of an infected person, and using it to replace the mutated version. However, there are several complications involved, and it has never been fully possible to carry this out and obtain good results. But not anymore.

liposome

A liposome is a phospholipid bilayer, which can fuse with cell membranes and release the gene it contains

In a new study carried out on 116 infected people, half received a gene therapy treatment, and half received a placebo. The treatment was a solution of liposomes that carried the desired gene inside them, and which the participants had to inhale so it could easily reach the lung cells. Although both were administered for 9 months, their effects were measured until after 12 months, and to do so researchers in charge measured the volume of air participants would breathe in and out in a set period of time. The results didn’t disappoint. People treated with gene therapy not only saw a stabilisation in their lung performance, instead of the disease’s characteristic downfall, but also had 3.7% better breathing capability than those people who had been given a placebo.

Although it may not sound like an impressive feat, it certainly is. Consider this is only the first time this has ever actually worked, and that it was a scaled down version of the treatment. The dose could definitely be increased so the effects are much greater. And even if the change seems small, it could postpone the need for lung transplants for decades.

The Moon Is Keeping You Awake


You may have heard people justify a bad night of sleep because ‘it was a full moon’, and immediately dismissed it as a myth. Well, think again.

The moon affecting our sleep is not as weird and irrational as it sounds. In fact, it’s not even unheard of in the animal kingdom, as this is known to happen in many other organisms, from small worms to large marine animals, and can not only affect their sleep, but also their reproductive cycles. It even has its own name: the circalunar rhythm.

moon

Now you know who to blame for a lack of rest

But to see if it could happen in humans too, a group of researchers from University of Basel, Switzerland, followed a group of patients who, like normal human beings, fell asleep every night, and every time gave the scientists their opinion on how well it went. Most agreed that on the day of or close to full moon, the sleep quality was lower and they felt less rested. But this could be a subjective or biased opinion by the patients. So the scientists backed this up with the most undeniable proof of all: science.

They measured the hormone levels, brain activity and any eye movements before, during and after falling asleep. In case you’re confused about why bother measuring eye movement; it is because during REM phase, where we actually ‘rest’, our eyes subconsciously move around (in fact, REM phase stands for Rapid Eye Movement phase). After conducting this research at different times of the month, and therefore at different stages in the moon cycle, what they found only supported what the people had said themselves: there was a decrease, of up to 30%, in the people’s brain patterns during sleep. Not only was the quality worse, but it was also shorter, as they took 5 more minutes to become unconscious and in total were deprived of almost 20 minutes of blissful sleep.

This could’ve all been due to a decrease in the levels of melatonin, a very interesting hormone which can be found in animals that somewhat ‘predicts’ when it is going to get dark and prepares us for sleep, so a lack of it could lead to us not sleeping as deeply.

But researchers don’t know how the moon can even affect the amount of this hormone in our body and can end up causing the other symptoms. It’s not the presence of moonlight, as this was eliminated by keeping the test subjects in closed rooms. So this leaves the two most plausible ideas being either that the moon’s gravity somehow manages to affects us even though it is extremely weak at such a large distance, or that humans have a physiological clock inside of them which keeps track of the moon cycles. Although this may sound just bizarre, it already exists; but instead of with the moon, it uses the Sun. You may have heard of it: it’s called the circadian rhythm and it has a great effect on us as thanks to it, our body knows how to behave at the different times of the day.

The test was only done on 33 people, quite a small sample regardless of how standardised the whole procedure was. So in future investigations, larger groups of people should be investigated to not only support these scientists’ hypothesis, but maybe to even find out the mechanism by which the moon manages to ruin a good night’s sleep.

Equalitarian Blood


Blood flows around the body all the time, yet we barely see it unless we suffer from an accident. If this were the case, and we lost too much of it, we’d need a blood transfusion. But it is not as easy as just putting blood from one individual into another: you need to test it and make sure the blood is compatible.

RBC

Can you guess what antigens these red blood cells have?

This occurs because human blood can be divided into many categories. The most common one is the ABO group classification, which divides blood into four types: A, B, AB and O. In each, red blood cells (those cells specialised in carrying oxygen around the body) have a specific antigen depending on the blood type. For example, if you have group A blood, you will have A antigens; if you have AB blood, you will have A and B antigens; and most importantly, if you have O blood, you will have no antigens.

Each antigen stimulates a response from our immune system to produces antibodies against the other antigens. So if you have blood group A, you will produce antibodies that will destroy cells with antigen B, and vice versa. This is potentially very dangerous, because if you give someone of type A blood from a person of type B, the antibodies can attack each other’s red blood cells and wreck havoc in our bodies.

When it comes to transfusing blood, the best one is group O- since it has no antigens, so there is no way your body can attack it. That is why we call it universal, since it works for anyone, no matter their blood type. This makes it very sought after for blood transfusions, but there isn’t always plenty of it available.

But what if we could convert all blood into O type blood? We can’t change the genotype of adults so that their body produced it, but we can change the blood itself after the blood has been donated. The most successful way to do this would be to insert bacterial enzymes into the blood which can recognise antigens in the red blood cells and cut them off so they are just like red blood cells from O group blood.

In the experiment which created this mechanism, the original enzyme worked mostly with cells from group B only, so to make it effective on cells from group A too they used a very interesting method called directed evolution. It’s just as it sounds: they grew the bacteria that produce this type of enzyme, and slowly mutated their genome (by adding bases to their DNA) so that every generation produced a better enzyme. At the end of the experiment, after 5 generations of bacteria, the final enzyme was produced, which not only could severe A antigens, but was also an impressive 170 times more efficient than the original one.

Yet this method is still not perfect: the enzyme can’t modify all the thousands of red blood cells in a sample of blood and therefore can’t make it completely safe, as there will still be some red blood cells with antigens present. But with enough time, the scientists hope to perfect it and make the technique available so blood transfusions are easier to carry out.

Puppy Dog Eyes


Dogs are the most popular pet in the world. They’re loyal, loving and most importantly, cute. But the reason we actually have them as our pets and may feel a connection to them lies beyond the heart, and in the realm of brain chemistry.

Humans release a hormone called oxytocin, the so called love-hormone, which creates feelings of affection and caring. It is produced by a mother gets when she stares into her child’s eyes, or by a spouse looking at their partner. And now, scientists have discovered, it is also liberated when a person makes eye contact or pets their dog, causing a bond to be formed. But, it’s not a one-side bargain: dogs also get a rush of oxytocin in their body, which makes them feel an emotional connection with their owners.

The experiment that discovered this looked into a group of people and their dogs, from breeds like Miniature Schnauzer or golden retrievers, and had them play in a room for half an hour, during which time they obviously touched and looked at each other. Before the test, the animals gave a urine sample, and after playtime was over, they gave another one. Oxytocin levels for all dogs were significantly higher after having spent time with their owners.

puppy dog

Can you feel the oxytocin flowing?

To investigate this further, they administered two solutions onto the dogs’ noses: on some, they sprayed an oxytocin solution; on others, they sprayed a salt solution to act as a placebo. The results supported the previous theory: those being sprayed with oxytocin spent more time looking into their owner’s eyes, and these corresponded by releasing more oxytocin into their system. But there was more to it. This effect only happened in female dogs. Male dogs did not provoke any change in behaviour or oxytocin levels. Although the reason is still not fully understood, and will be researched in future experiments, a possible theory is that in males, oxytocin can also cause animosity towards other people.

Interestingly enough, when the process was repeated with wolves and their owners it didn’t produce the same results, despite dogs and wolves being closely related. This may suggest that this mechanism was developed at a time when wolves and dogs were apart, such as when humans had already domesticating them.

However, don’t use this method to try and bond with any other wild animals. This could only work with dogs, as they are the only species other than humans that are known to release oxytocin because of eye contact. Usually, in the animal kingdom, eye contact actually means defiance, so it could get you in a lot of trouble…

Balding Irony


Baldness affects many people (mostly men) at some point in their lives and a lot of research has been carried out to learn how to prevent it. The secret to doing so might be the most ironic treatment ever: to prevent going bald, pluck your hair.

The science of hair growth is more fascinating than it may seem at first sight. Hairs actually go through cycles: first they grow thanks to the stem cells in the follicle (the anagen phase), then they stop growing (the rest phase), and lastly the hair falls out. But if you manually remove the hair at any of these phases, an interesting process is triggered. The follicle will release cytokines, specifically the CCL2 type, which is a chemical that attracts white blood cells. When these cells arrive, they also release their own set of chemicals that stimulate stem cells so they start producing hair again. However, what’s the point of plucking one hair so that it grows if you already have it?

Well, there’s a trick. Scientists at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, did some experiments with mice where they removed a handful of hair on a specific area of the mouse’s body, and to their surprise, found that not only did the patch of hair grow back, but also stimulated growth in others areas. The catch is that this only happened if a certain amount of hair was removed: there was a threshold for the amount of hair that needed to be pulled out for others to be stimulated.

bald head

Should’ve plucked his hair more often!

This is because the CCL2 signal from one follicle isn’t very large; you need CCL2 to build up so the effects are much stronger and can affect a larger area of the skin. In the specific experiment they carried out, the lowest number of hairs that had to be removed was of 200, which lead to the growth of 1200 hairs. The way these hairs can communicate with each other by accumulation of chemical signals is called ‘quorum sensing’, and it causes the hairs to act like a collective group, as if taking decisions together.

Although the study was carried out on mice, the researchers don’t rule out the fact that it could somehow be used in humans, although some modification may be necessary. It also shows the increasing complexity of the immune system, and possibly sheds some light as to how the mechanism of regeneration is controlled.

Precious Faeces


Treasure hunters spend their lives looking for valuable objects like gold coins and silver ornaments in shipwrecks or archaeological sites, often involving dangerous stunts. But tonnes of precious metals are actually hiding in plain site, right where you wouldn’t expect them: in your faeces.

gold stuff

Who knows where this gold actually came from…

Many products we use in our day-to-day life, like shampoos and detergents, contain precious metals, which gather up in urban pipes. Or they can be found in the food and drink we consume and that, after a while, accumulates in our body until is removed by excretion, which also ends up in the sewage drains. So imagine if this process was carried out by thousands of people, all living together in a city. The amount of valuable elements in the sewage would be outstanding! And so has been confirmed in a study by the US Geological Survey that found out that the concentration of precious metals in a city’s sewage system is comparable to that in an actual working mine.

For example, in a single kilogram of ‘sewage slime’, you can find 0.4mg of gold and 28mg of silver, metals used in jewellery; 638mg of copper, a metal used in electrical wiring and 49mg of vanadium, which has important industrial applications. But in the larger scale of a whole city, it has been calculated that by all these metals being thrown into the sewers, up to £510 million a year are being lost in the UK.

In an attempt to profit from this waste, companies are starting to consider human faeces as a viable source of precious metals. It’d be quite a profitable venture for them, and much greener than traditional mining since instead of using hazardous chemicals in lands where they can contaminate a habitat, they are used in an enclosed factory. And although working with faeces sounds like an outrageous idea and a bad time, it has been done for many years now, as it is used to make plant fertilizers.

As a fortunate side effect, we would actually be making our excrements cleaner and therefore protecting the environment. Faeces not only contain gold and silver, but heavier metals like lead which can be toxic to an ecosystem. By processing our waste, we’d make sure that not only the valuable metals are removed, but the harmful ones too. This idea just gets better and better!

So who knows, maybe someday in the near future you will wear gold bracelets that come from your faeces, or phones with microchips made of components of our waste.

Prophetic Neurones


Being able to tell the future is a superpower that we have all wanted at some point or another in our life. And although it seems like science-fiction material, we actually do have this ability. Granted, it is not as accurate or far-reaching as we would like, but it is still quite impressive and useful at a smaller scale.

In our everyday lives, we often encounter situations where we need to predict what other people are going to do. These can range from normal conversations to arguments, or even playing games. It is precisely this last scenario which can be used to investigate how exactly we are able to foretell other people’s actions.

The game in particular is called Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the experiment consists of having monkeys play this game and examine any patterns in their actions. In this game, two people face each other with two options: either cooperate or refuse to work together. Every different combination of choices yields different results. For example, if one declines and the other cooperates, the one that declines gets a great reward, whereas the other doesn’t. If both cooperate, they both get a smaller reward. If both refuse to work together, they get the smallest prize. So to win the most in this game you have to be good at predicting what your opponent will do and acting accordingly.

A team at Harvard Medical School made monkeys play this game hundreds of times, but did it so that each time the monkeys could see what their companion had chosen. This way, they could base their decision for the next turn on what the opponent had done and predict how they could get the greatest reward.

anterior cingulate

Highlighted in yelllow is the anterior cingulate, where these ‘clairvoyant’ neurones are found

At the same time, their brains were monitored. Specifically, an area called the anterior cingulate, which has been shown to be involved in the decision making process. The results showed that some neurones in this area acted according to a pattern, depending on the decisions the monkeys took. But to make the results more reliable and make sure these cells were responsible, they used some exterior electrical impulses to inhibit them and prevent them from working correctly. By doing this, the monkeys became more selfish and refused to cooperate more often, even though tactically it made no sense, as it would result in a lower prize. Since confusing these neurones caused the monkeys to make different choices, especially involving disconnection from their partner and a lack of prediction of their movements, it is safe to say that the specific group of cells in the anterior cingulate have an effect on foretelling the future.

Although this theory has only been tested in monkeys, the process in humans is thought to work in a similar way, and studying it can help study social interactions between humans, in light of diseases such as autism.

The Infamous Dress


At the expense of becoming another sheep in the herd of humanity’s trends, today’s article is going to be about the dress that has invaded the Internet. For those of you who don’t know, ‘the dress’ is a picture of a dress taken at a wedding and published on Tumblr, where it proceeded to reach international fame due to an odd fact: different people see the dress being different colours. It may sound like a weird online hoax, but it’s just an optical illusion that causes some people to see the dress and white and gold, whereas others see it as blue and black. Recently, there have been many theories suggested to explain why this phenomenon happens (for example, because of bad eyesight), but it actually has nothing to do with our eyes, but rather, with our brains. If you’re curious, the actual dress is blue and black, but that doesn’t mean that those who see it in other colours have worse eyesight or worse brains, as you will see.

Think about it like this. When you see an object in the shade, you automatically assume it is of a lighter colour than it actually looks like because you know shade makes things look darker. Therefore, your brain unconsciously tries to compensate for by processing the image your eyes are supplying and making it lighter.

But shade is not the only way images can be distorted. It also happens at normal daylight. If you are observing a piece of paper right underneath the sun, you will be viewing it thanks to a yellowish light. Your brain is smart enough to detect the light has a slight colour of its own and will therefore modify the image and subtract some yellow from it. If, on the other hand, you are seeing the piece of paper with the sun blocked but still receiving light from the sky, the light will be slightly blue, so your brain will take that bluish undertone away.

With this image, it’s the exact same scenario. The dress can appear to be in the shade to some people, and exposed to sunlight to others. Depending on how you unconsciously interpret it, you will see the dress a specific way. Those who think the dress is in the shade will unconsciously think it is darker than it should be, so their brains modify the image and make it lighter. This results in light colours like white and yellow-gold to appear. Those who don’t see the dress in partial darkness keep the colours mostly the same and don’t process the image, making it blue and black.

Interestingly enough, some people see it one way sometimes, the other way other times, and even a mixture of the two! This is just caused by our brains varying the amount of modification they do to the image, and may also have to do with the quality of the screen the picture is being viewed through.

But despite all of this, if you ask me, the dress is obviously white and gold.

dressgate

What colour do you see this dress?