Ancient Antibiotic Antidote

Despite the absolutely mind-blowing scientific developments we have witnessed in the last few decades, it seems like our ancestors still have the upper hand, as a 1000-year-old recipe for a treatment is effective against our worst medical nightmare: superbugs.

Bald’s Leechbook

If you can read Old English, this page from the Bald’s Leechbook will give you the recipe to fight the almighty MRSA

The instructions for said cure, found in the “Bald’s Leechbook” manuscript (written in the 9th Century), called for mixing garlic, leeks, wine, and bile from a cow’s stomach in a brass container, so that’s what scientists in Nottingham University, curious about the effectiveness of this old-fashioned procedure, prepared. There was one slight exception: brass containers are costly and difficult to keep bacteria-free, so instead they used a glass bottle and inserted brass sheets into the mixture hoping it would have the same effect. It was left for nine days to sit, producing a dominant garlic scent which filled the lab. But proof did eventually start to show that demonstrated this was more than child’s play: the bacteria that had been added through the soil in the garlic and the leek had been killed, meaning the solution was actually sterilising itself.

Originally, the concoction was thought out to treat styes (eyelash infections) which are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, supposedly working perfectly fine. But the reconstruction has now been tested on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; the older, tougher sibling of the original bacteria and the mixture can still hold its ground. In an experiment using pieces of skin from infected mice, the centuries-old mixture cleared 90% of the MRSA infection; just as much as the standard modern antibiotic used for this type of bacteria.

What’s interesting to note is that only the mixture of all these compounds actually caused an effect on the bacteria. The scientists conducting this research carried out several repeats, each time changing the variables by using only one of the ingredients in a brass-containing water solution. By themselves, they were useless against MRSA, which was to expect because even though they all have some antimicrobial properties, this type of superbug is one of the hardest to kill. But when they were brewed together, they were able to almost completely massacre the culture. Although an explanation for why only their combined effects works is still missing, the frenzy of this wild event has caught many scientists from all around the world’s attention, and many experiments are currently being conducted in hopes of finding out the mechanism behind this ‘magical’ preparation.

This event just goes to show that although we may see most past scientists as delirious people who though the Earth was flat and there were only 5 elements, they still had some very promising ideas which should be remembered.

A great video on the matter you should watch if you’re interested is:

(Special thanks to reader pcawdron for sharing it)

Philae Fall

The misadventures of the famous Philae lander have been the hot scientific topic of the week. 10 years of preparation, hard work and effort finally came to fruition when the robot detached itself from the Rosetta Spacecraft after being together for a decade and set off on its journey to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.


How Philae was supposed to look on the surface of 67P

A couple days before the actual separation, ESA, the European Space Agency, which has been supervising the mission all these years; carried out a series of tests to make sure all the machinery in the lander worked perfectly. There was a minor problem with the thrusters, but since there was nothing scientists at Earth could do to fix it, they decided to keep the mission going anyway.

On the 12th of November of 2014, Philae made history when it became the first object to ever land in a controlled manner on a comet. And although this feat is outstanding and impressive by itself, there were some technical difficulties. The idea was that the lander would fire some harpoons to adhere to the comet and use thrusters so that together, they would push the robot towards the comet. But neither of these devices worked as planned, so when Philae did ‘land’, it bounced back. Twice. The first bounce made Philae jump almost 1km high into space (another record), and took the incredible amount of 2 hours for it to fall back. The second leap was much smaller, and only took a couple of minutes for it to settle down. But this was not the last obstacle in Philae’s way. Due to all the bouncing around, the machine ended up about 1 km away from the original landing site, and on top of that, it has stopped in a rather unusual posture. Instead of having its three legs on the pressed on the ground, one of them is dangling midair.

Facing these problems head-on, scientists still tried to carry out some of the proposed experiments. For example, they wanted Philae to take a sample of the comet dust using a drill incorporated into it. This apparatus comes out of the bottom part of the robot, but since Philae is sloping, the drill couldn’t actually reach the ground.

But Philae actually has more pressing problems at the moment. After bouncing all around 67P, it stopped in an area of the comet where the sun rays can’t reach; a fatal location for a solar powered machine like Philae. This soon alerted scientists regarding the duration of the battery, which would quickly run out. The solution was to turn on a ‘power-saving’ mode, but right in the middle of this process they lost contact with the robot. As of the 15th, Philae has used up all its stored energy and has basically shut down. There is still hope that when 67P reaches areas closer to the Sun, the lander will become powered again, but chances are slim.

Regardless of the many problems with the landing and its consequences, Philae did end up on a moving comet, and that’s reason enough to congratulate scientists at ESA for so many years of dedication and a successful mission.

Homo erectus, The Pyromaniacs

This Tuesday, a group of international archaeologists discovered the traces of what looks like the oldest controlled fire made by humans. The remains and some microscopic residues of ash and burnt bones were found in the South African cave of Wonderwerk.

It is proved the fire was controlled and probably caused by the Homo erectus, the most possible candidate as the times match, as the fireplace was found 30 metres inside the cave, which practically discards the fact the fire was caused by wildfires.

However, the traces given are not conclusive when saying the hominids at that time ‘started’ the fire themselves. As Michael Chazan, from University of Toronto in Canada, says, it is also possible that the Homo erectus carried the fire from outside the cave and brought inside, which rules out the theory that says that they made the fire.

This discovery is not only important because it is the oldest proved hearth in history, having 1 million years, but because it will also be very useful for anthropologists to show how at this time, hominids developed a taste for food. This finding will reactivate the debate that cooking changed forever the human anatomy.

As Richard Wrangham says, at Harvard University, this finding is an exciting breakthrough, which makes many scientists think that other areas from South Africa with 1 million years old should be re-examinated.

Wrangham gives lots of importance to this discovery as it could be a conclusive prove that around that time humans started cooking food.

Despite this, Chazan also argues that the tiny trace of fire really contrast the great amount of ashes found in other fires of more recent sites. This, says Chazan, indicates that the Homo Erectus didn’t use the fire frequently or cooked regularly.

Wonderwerk Cave

This is not the first finding of extremely old hearths. The oldest hearth found (before the South African was discovered) was found a few years ago, the residues of ashes, stones and bones were found in an Israeli land, and dated from only 790,000 years ago.

However, many scientists state that humans were able to cook and control fire much earlier, since 1.9 million years ago, although there are no scientific proves.

It is clear that this mystery will be difficult to solve, but, as Wrangham says, the problem is so fascinating.