2014 Science Highlights: Part 2


Continuing last week’s list of the most interesting scientific events of 2014, here I present 5 more discoveries that marked this year.

6. Curious Curiosity

moon earth curiosity

The picture Curiosity took in which the Moon and Earth can be seen together

2014 was Curiosity’s year. It was always present in the news, whether it was because of its 2 Earth years anniversary, its 1 Martian year anniversary, the popular selfie it took of itself or the breathtaking picture of the Moon and the Earth. But Curiosity is not only a great photographer; it’s a great researcher too. Since its arrival on Mars, it has provided us with a lot of information about the Red planet. It has made some curious discoveries on the methane gas concentrations in Mars’ atmosphere, and the deuterium to hydrogen ratio, to shed some light on the controversial history of water in Mars.

 7. ALS Fever

als icebucketchallenge

ALS got lots of attention from the insanely popular Ice Bucket Challenge

The Ice Bucket Challenge swept the world; almost everyone, from celebrities to normal citizens did it, and most donated some amount of money to the ALS Association. Overall, $115 million dollars were raised, and the money will now go into helping people with this condition and into research for a treatment and a cure. Although ALS is not a very common disease, it is a crippling one and can leave those affected with a very disabled life. Therefore, it is absolutely amazing to see the amount of support this charity received, and very hopeful how much effort was put into spreading awareness.

 8. The $1000 Genome

genome 1000

By making reading genomes cheaper, we are getting closer to personalized medicine

A machine that could effectively read a person’s whole genome for less than 1000 dollars was invented this year. This has been a very sought after discovery, and a milestone in the genetic field. Scientists have expected this for years, and it is such an important creation that even prizes were created for those who could accomplish this feat to motivate scientists into researching it. Now that we finally have it, it’s better than we imagined. The machine can actually sequence 5 sets of genomes per day. This could set off a revolution in genomics, and fasten the pace of discovery tremendously.

 9. Giant Dinosaur

giant dinosaur

A drawing of the largest creature ever; its size is roughly that of a seven-story biulding

Dinosaurs have always been known for their size, ferocity and majesty. A new species of dinosaur discovered in Patagonia has been calculated to measure 40m long and 20m high, with an estimated weight of 77 tonnes; that’s 77000 kg! Not only is this the largest dinosaur ever found, but it is also the largest animal to ever walk the Earth. What’s also great bout this discovery is that there were dozens of bones from this creature and allconserved in a great condition, so investigating these bones won’t be too difficult. Unfortunately, it still doesn’t have a name; it is such an important aspect that archeologists want time to think of a name that can represent the importance of this animal.

 10. Fake Life Flourishes

X and Y

Base X (left) and base Y (right), completely new bases which act like the natural ones

Synthetic biology grew greatly this year. On one hand, scientists were able to create a synthetic version of yeast’s chromosome, by substituting the original, natural genes by artificial ones created in the lab. But also, two new bases were proven effective this year. All animals use the usual 4 bases (A, G, C, T) in their genes to code for proteins. But new research has created a bacterium that uses two extra bases, named X and Y, which can code for new amino acids and extend the range of chemicals organisms can produce.

 

2014 was a great year for science; let’s hope 2015 has even more interesting and fascinating discoveries in store for us!

Happy Selfie, Curiosity!


The iconic robot has joined the trend and taking this peculiar image of itself to celebrate his first Martian year in the red planet. He arrived there the 5th of August of 2012, but since a year in Mars takes longer to happen than in Earth, only now has Curiosity reached this milestone. It has been plenty of time for the machine to surprise scientists everywhere with its discoveries, which we will recount in its honour.

Curiosity Selfie

The acclaimed robot takes the first selfie on Mars

On the 27th of September, it was announced the Rover had discovered an ancient riverbed. Of course, there was no water in it, so how did they know it was a river bed? This conclusion was reached because the robot found small, rounded boulders, instead of the sharp ones with jagged edges that usually occur, and the most common explanation for rocks being smooth and curved is due to flowing water transporting them for long distances and eroding them. However, doubt lies as to whether it was actually water flowing, and not some other liquid or maybe even a gas like CO2, but since there are hydrated minerals in Mars, it is most likely water was the liquid. But even if it was an actual river, it doesn’t immediately mean life on Mars exited, because there were no traces of carbon in the area so it is impossible to say if there had actually been living organisms in the area.

September was a busy month, since at that time Curiosity also shone more light into the methane mystery in Mars. In past studies, some scientists had concluded there was a high abundance of methane in Mars, and since methane is mostly produced by living beings, such as cows and rice, some though this was proof of the existence of extraterrestrial life on Mars. But after 8 months of analysing the atmosphere, the rover concluded there was little to none methane there. In fact, it estimated there was only 1 part per billion of methane in Mars. However, it is arguable that some methane is trapped in the planet, so Curiosity will be doing more detailed investigations in the future.

Those are the main ventures pursued by Curiosity, and it has plenty of time to investigate further, since the original 2-year-mission was prolonged indefinitely. For now, please join me on wishing the rover a late Happy Birthday!

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(By the way, this is my 50th post in Science for Scientists after 2 and a half years of blogging. It was about time, right?)

India’s Space Adventure


Throughout history, human beings have been investing their time and effort in satisfying on of the India Launchmost basic instincts: curiosity. It started by investigating unknown lands, sailing through the sea to sea what they could find, and eventually, the ultimate barrier, space.

Now, India launched its first mission to Mars last Tuesday 5th of November, with the objective of studying its landscape, the atmosphere and search for methane. It was a relatively cheap mission, only 75 million dollars, compared to other adventures organised by the USA, It was carried out thanks to the efforts of 1000 scientists, who worked for this project for more than 15 months.

Right now, the rocket is orbiting the Earth, were it will stay until the 1st of December. Then, its journey of 300 days to our neighbouring planet will begin. On the 24th of September of next year, we will find out whether it will fail or it will accomplish the mission. Hopefully it’s the former.

The Mangalyaan rocket is the first aircraft sent by the Asian country to the red planet. It has very high stakes on it, as if it were to be successful, it would make India the 4th country to reach the surface of this nearby planet. The other countries were USA, Russia and the EU.

It would also position India as the lead country in Asia to achieve this, because although both China and Japan have previously tried the same mission, they both ultimately failed.

India has a very modest past in its spatial history. It has sent a few satellites designed by other countries up to our atmosphere and a lunar probe in 2008, but other than that it has been fairly quiet.

Future plans from this country include a very ambitious manned flight to outer space in 2016. These are probably the first steps of a growing giant, and for sure they will launch many more rockets and aircrafts to discover what space has to offer.