Super Brain Network


Although it may seem directly taken from a science fiction movie, scientists at Duke University have actually managed to connect the brains of several organisms so that without any real communication they have been able to work together to carry out tasks.

In a series of experiments, researchers opened the skull of both monkeys and rats and using electrodes and wires, linked members of the same species together so that, even if they could not share complex thoughts or emotions, they could synchronise their neural activity.

When doing some experiments on rats, the connection was investigated by having one of the animals undergo an electrical stimulus, so its brain activity increased. The other rats, despite not being stimulated directly, automatically changed their neural activity to match that of the first rat, so it looked like they too had received the stimulus, and felt its effects.

But not only does this connection make them more ‘empathic’, it also makes them more intelligent. When scientists sent temperature and atmospheric pressure information into their brains, coded by electrical impulses, the rats could put all the information they had received together and solve problems regarding the chance of rainfall. They could do this by themselves, without any linking, but the brain network helped them obtain better scores.

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Linking brains is no longer a science fiction movie plot

With monkeys, three of them were connected through the motor region of their brains, after being trained individually to control a virtual arm with thoughts alone. Once they were connected, each was able to control only certain aspects of the arm’s movement, like only being able to move the arm horizontally and vertically, and even those abilities it had to share with another monkey, so that each had an equal contribution to the movement in that direction. However, as messy as this sounds, they synchronised and managed to work with each together, combining their skills to control the arm and grab an imaginary ball displayed on the computer.

The applications for this are not to make a huge human population brain network, where we can share our thoughts and emotions, as not only are they too complex for it to be possible to share them this way, but it would also be unethical and have privacy issues. However, it can be used in people who have had some damage to their brain. For example, someone who has suffered from a stroke and can no longer talk normally can be connected to a healthy person, so said area synchronises with the healthy area and accelerates the healing process.

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2013 Review Part 2


In the previous article we saw how scientists from all around the world had managed to print a gun, create a fake burger and allow a human and a rat to communicate only using their minds! We also saw how two excelling scientists were honoured with the most prestigious scientific award, the Nobel Prize, for their theory of how particles gain their mass. Last but not least, we reviewed the meteor that hit Russia and fascinated observers and astronomers alike.

But 2013 was a very busy year, and there are still things that have to be remembered. For example:

6. Life Can Be So Hard

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Lake Vostok in Antarctica

Humanity has not yet found a planet with living organisms in it, because conditions can be very harsh and inhospitable, unlike in our planet. Or maybe not.  I’m talking about Lake Vostok, in Antartica, where this body of water rests under 500 metres of ice, under extreme temperatures and pressure, and where no sunlight can reach. Immediately, you’d think there can be no life here, but a team of Russian scientists proved last year that there may be, when they drilled through all the ice and extracted a sample of water that contained pieces of DNA.

If life is definitely found, it will most probably be single-celled organisms, not macro-organisms such as fish or sharks, although if there’s anything we’ve learned from this adventure is that life can be found in the most unprecedented places, not matter what form it takes.

7. The Memory of the Smell of Fear

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Memories travel generations in rats

A study carried out last year showed that memories can be transmitted from one generation to the next, and not by talking about it. The case was that a group of rats were subjected to the smell of cherry blossom, and after this, gave them an electric shock, so every time they smelled this, they would become wary and tense. Then, these rats were reproduced, and, surprisingly, the children also became alert when detecting the smell.

Although the mechanism is not yet understood, it may have something to do with changes in the DNA (like switching on and off certain genes) due to chemicals being released in your body.

This phenomenon can happen with other events, not just smell, but others are more difficult to track, since there are a lot of genes involved. Smell, specifically cherry blossom, is easier because there are specific receptors that react to this smell, which scientists already know about, so changes in these can be seen easily enough. Also, its not only the fact that the offspring must remember the smell, but also the feeling that comes with it, fear.

8. The Oldest DNA

In a cave 30 metres below ground, a paradise for archaeologists lies. There, the oldest genome ever discovered has been processed, yielding incredible results.

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Denisovian Hominid

This fantastic place is the Atapuerca cave, found in Spain (my home country), and has always been considered a gold mine for anthropologists. It continues to meet its expectatives, as in a shaft, they found the remains of 28 hominids, of which a thigh bone was extracted. Although extracting a good sample of DNA from such an old sample, especially in a warm climate, is very improbable, scientists tried anyway, and thank God they did. The genome found is 400,000 years old, twice the age of our current species. The surprising thing about his genome is not only its antiquity, but also that it shows the bones found in the shaft known as ‘the pit of bones’ is not Neanderthal, but of a different species of humans called Denisovan, of which very little is known. But with this discovery, maybe we will find out all we need to know about them, and complete the puzzle of our many ancestors.

9. The Most Crowded Trench 

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Mariana’s Trench, the deepest point on Earth

Director James Cameron, known for movies such as Titanic, Avatar or The Terminator, will be remembered by the scientific community for more than his movies.

Last March, he organised the Challenger Deep expedition, which travelled 11000 metres underwater to the lowest point of Earth, the Mariana’s Trench. He stayed there for about an hour, collecting samples and recording everything he saw.

Although the area was not teeming with macro-organisms, unfortunately for Cameron, samples from the submarine show there were unusually high levels of bacteria in the water. For every cubic centimetre, there were 10 million bacteria, a surprise for scientists because the amount of organisms down there was higher than in shallower areas, where conditions are less hostile. A possible explanation is that trenches are extremely good at collecting ‘food’ (organic matter from creatures above), so bacteria would have enough material to survive, even though the pressure and temperatures are not too comfortable.

 10. Blob of Pitch Falls

Pitch, a substance that makes up petroleum, is also one of the most viscous substance known to man, and its qualities can be quite interesting.

Decades back, someone in Trinity College Dublin set up an experiment that consisted in adding a measure of heated pitch to a glass funnel, and then let gravity do its job. The original version of this experiment, however, was done in University of Queensland, Australia, by Thomas Parnell, whose objective was to show and measure how viscous this liquid really was, though he died before it could actually happen.

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The Pitch Experiment

But it was in Dublin where the magic really happened. After years of the pitch standing abandoned in an old shelf, scientist Shane Bergin found it, and after figuring out what it was, set up a web cam and connected it to the Internet so everyone was able to observe the liquid, in case a drop fell. And that is precisely what happened, the 11th of July, after years and years of patience. Although the real purpose has been completed, the web cam is still connected, and it is expected that in the next decade, another drop falls, so be attentive.