The 6th Sense

We are used to people talking about the 5 senses: sound, sight, touch, smell and taste. But scientists are now working on improving these, and even creating a new sense that would enable us to experience the world in a much more heightened way.

For now, it’s all based on an experiment to help blind mice. Since this type of mice isn’t able to see, their sense of direction is severely handicapped. But in the University of Tokyo, a team used a compass like those found in smart phones, albeit a more complex version, and inserted it into the visual cortex of blind mice. It had two electrodes attached, each connected to a hemisphere of the brain. They fired up, sending electric impulses to the brain, whenever the mice’s head turned a certain amount of degrees away from the north direction. Depending on how many degrees, it would change the intensity of the signal on each hemisphere, so for example, when the mouse faced south, the neuroprosthesis would only send an impulse to the left hemisphere. After a week, the mouse managed to interpret these signals correctly and was able to orient itself using this compass, instead of the usual vision.

mouse compass

These mice have a compass in their brain, which helps them overcome their blindness

This was demonstrated by putting the mice in a labyrinth with a prize in the middle, and comparing normal mice, blind mice, and blind mice with the compass. After about 60 rounds of labyrinth trials, the normal mice and those with the compass behaved practically the same, finding the prize in a small amount of time, whereas the blind mice took longer. It seemed like the mice were able to create a map of the labyrinth in their heads, so no matter where they were placed within the maze, they managed to find their way around. Although this did not actually cure the blindness, it enabled them to find their sense of direction and be more independent.

What’s especially interesting is not only that the rats were actually able to ‘see’, but that they could detect this foreign type of stimuli and understand and interpret it correctly. Even though they spent their lives without a compass in their head, as soon as it started working they were able to use it to their advantage, showing the great adaptability of these organisms. This could be extrapolated to use in human beings, and gives hope for a cure/alternative to blindness. Other scientists go further and suggest that it could open a path towards new types of senses, using stimuli like UV or infra red light that, together with receptors like this compass, we could use to see the world in much more complex ways, adding more senses to the pre-existent ones.


Magnifying Eyes

It is a popular depiction of the futuristic world to show contact lenses that can display smartphone information: text messages, emails, phone calls… Don’t get too excited, this isn’t today’s news exactly. What has actually been created is a set of contact lenses that allow the user to zoom in and out of everyday life.

The gadget is basically a slightly larger contact lens that covers both your retina and the whites of the eye. It is also thicker and much more rigid than normal contacts, but can still be worn comfortably. In addition, it is covered with strips of aluminium mirror forming a circle, which cause light to be reflected many times within the lens, creating a magnification of 2.8 times. For the apparatus to work at its finest, it has to be joined to a pair of electronic glasses. When the subject winks with one eye, it activates the glasses, so they switch from normal mode to polarised mode. Then, they filter light so only light of one wavelength passes through (polarises) and focuses it on the telescopic area of the lens, which gives a zoomed in view. By winking with the other eye, the glass switches back to normal mode so there is no zoom.

At the moment, there have been no human trials due to the risk of harming the eye. The lenses are naturally thick, so it is difficult for air to pass through and keep the surface of the eye fresh and oxygenated. The newest model of this contact includes many little pores that allow air to pass, so the lenses can be worn for a longer period of time with a much lower risk.

contact lens zoom

These lenses were originally planned as a substitute for binoculars for soldiers

Designing these lenses was not only for entertainment or a cool technological device, but rather for medical purposes. These zooming contact lenses can help people with limited visibility, like those with macular degeneration, a disease which affects muscles in the retina. They offer a much easier and practical alternative than surgery or special, expensive glasses.